Pharmacognosy & Environmental Medicines – Course Modules

COURSE MODULE

PGC 601 Research Methodology and Application of ICT in Research
In-depth work aimed at acquiring full knowledge and presentations in scholarly writing of the concepts, issues, trends in the definitions and development of the study area from African and Western perspectives. Major steps in research; Selection of problem, Literature review, Designs, Data Collection, Analysis and Interpretation, Conclusion. Study of various research design, Historical, Case studies, Surveys, Descriptive, Cross Sectional, Experimental, etc. Analysis, Surveys, and Synthesis of conceptual and philosophical foundations of different disciplines. Identification of research problems and development of research questions and/or hypotheses. Detailed treatment of methods of collecting relevant research data and the format for presenting research results (from designing the table of contents to referencing, bibliography and appendix). Data analysis and result presentation in different disciplines using appropriate analytical tools. Methods of project/dissertation writing. Application of appropriate advanced ICT tools relevant in every discipline for data gathering, analysis and result presentation.Essential of spread sheets, Internet Technology and Internet Search Engines. All registered Masters Degree must attend a solution-based interactive workshop to be organized by the School of Postgraduate Studies for a practical demonstration and application of the knowledge acquired from the course, conducted by the selected experts (3 Units)

PCG 601 Advanced Separation Methods
Theoretical concept, including partition chromatography, absorption chromatography. Advances in ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration chromatography and zone electrophoreses. Column chromatography, paper chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. Droplet counter current chromatography (DCCC). Flash – affinity – and zone analysis chromatography, the choice of a suitable chromatographic procedure. Application of these techniques in the quantitative separation of medicinal plant constituents. (3 units)

PCG 611 Comparative Phytochemistry
Introduction, definitions/terminologies; techniques in chemotaxonomy. Chemotaxonomy of medicinal plants. Differential accumulation of various groups of plant constituents by plant drugs. Chemical racism and plant genetics – Cytotoxic agents of plant origin. Alkaloids as drugs of addiction. Saponins and their relationship to steroidal hormones: Development of new therapeutic agents from natural products. (3 units)

PCG 621 Advanced Biomedicinal Chemistry
Metabolic pathway and aberrant reactions – physiochemical consideration in drug action. Annual endochemicals as sources of biologically active molecules – Modulation of natural products to improve their pharmacodynamic properties. Bio-precursors and carrier pro-drugs from natural products.(3 units)

PCG 631 Quantitative Microscopical Analyses
Advanced techniques in microscopical analysis of drug – Camera Lucida, polarizing microscopy. Electron Microscopy. Phase-contrast microscopy . Quantitative microscopy. Microscopical evaluation of crude drugs and standardization of crude drugs. (3 units)

PCG 641 Advanced Analytical Techniques
Spectroscopic evaluation of the active constituents of medicinal plants. Structure elucidation of secondary plant metabolics by a combination photometry. Condometry : Electrogravimetry : Tratcer Techniques (Use of Geiger-Muller Counters and Scintillation Counters): X-ray dittraction medicinal analysis; opical Rotary Dispersion in Drug Standization.(3 units)

PCG 642 Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Nigeria:
Botanical and geographical sources, history, morphology, medicinal or toxic constituents and action of the important medicinal and poisonous plants growing in Nigeria – Therapeutic agents from African flora. (4 units)

PCG 652 Chemistry Drug Design
Physiochemical properties and biological activity – factors affecting drug action at the active sit- principles and applications of theoretical drug design Application of molecular orbital and negentropy to Drug Studies – influence of steroselectivity and molecular topography of medicinal substances. Differential approaches to chemical drug design. Fundamental structure and synthesis in drug research. (4 units)

PCG 690 Project Dissertation (12 units)

NOTE: Minimum of 30 Credit units

PGC 701 Synopsis and Grant Writing

Identification of types and nature of grant and grant writing; mining of grants application calls on the Internet. Determining appropriate strategy for each grant application. Study of various grant application structures and contents and writing of concept notes, detailed project description, budgeting and budget defense. Study of Sample Grant Writing in various forms and writing of mock research and other grants. Identification of University of Nigeria Synopsis structure and requirements, (Introduction, Methodology and Results). Determining of content of each sub-unit of the synopsis. Steps in writing of synopsis from the Dissertation /Thesis documents. Structural and language issues. Common errors in synopsis writing and strategies for avoiding them. The role of the student and supervisor in the production of a synopsis. Writing of mock synopsis. All registered Ph.D students must attend a solution-based interactive workshop to be organized by the School of Postgraduate Studies for a practical demonstration and application of the knowledge acquired from the course, conducted by selected experts

PCG 701): APPLICATION OF BIOINFORMATICS IN BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES
A detailed over view of bioinformatics; a treatise on the concepts of genomics, proteomics and their various applications in drug design, discovery and evaluation, plant DNA bar-coding etc. (3 Units)

PCG 703: SEMINAR I
Presentation of a seminar on any selected topic of current relevance after the approval of the supervisor and or the Departmental PG coordinator. This seminar must hold in the first semester of the first year of the programme. Another seminar which constitutes research outcomes and contributions of the work to knowledge should be given at the Departmental level. This should be score by the only approved Ph.D Supervisors in the Department and the Supervisor on 50:50% basis. (3 Units)

PCG 704: SEMINAR II RESEARCH GRANT AND PROPOSAL WRITING
Defense of a proposal for a research grant written on any selected topic of current relevance after the approval of the supervisor and or the Department PG coordinator. This seminar must hold in the second semester of the said year of the programme. (3 Units)

PCG 711: ADVANCED PHYTOCHEMISTRY:
Plant metabolic pathways and the biosynthesis of secondary plant metabolites – plant growth regulators. Importance of phyto-chemical constituents in plant taxonomy. Role of genetics, DNA/RNA hybridization in taxonomy. Phytochemistry of secondary metabolites from lower plants like algae, lichens, ferns and marine plants. (3 Units)

PCG 731: PHYTOGENETICS AND PLANTS CELL/TISSUE CULTURE:
The Gene as a hereditary material, structure and mode of expression; nuclear and cytoplasmic genes and their mode of inheritance; Gene mutation, chromosomal aberrations and polyploidy. Genetic base of plant cell/tissue culture. Techniques and applications of plant Cell and Tissue Culture for the production of plant metabolites with specific examples of alkaloids glycosides terpenes/steroids, and antibiotics obtained through plant cell and tissue cultures (Genetically modified medicinal plants). (3 Units)
PCG 762 : HERBAL MEDICINE FORMULATION AND STANDARDIZATION:

Basic principles of formulating herbal medicines into liquid, solid and semi solid/topical dosage forms including suspensions, infusions, tinctures, syrups, capsules, tablets, crams ointments etc. chemical and physicochemical properties of the crude drug that affect formulation processes and dosage forms. Biological test systems for evaluation of medicinal plant materials. Standardization of herbal medicinal formulations using simple spectroscopic, titrimetric and pharmacodynamics techniques. (3 Units)

PCG 741: NOVEL DRUGS FROM MEDICINAL PLANTS:
Medical plants as alternatives suitable for conventional standard drugs. Phytopharmacology, biogenesis and therapeutics potentials of the following classes of drugs: Anti-tumour agents, Cariovascular drugs, Anti malarial, Anti-microbial, anti-diabetic, anti ulcer, anti hypertensive, immunomodulatory, Steroids and hormones of plant origin. (3 Units)

PCG 742: Synopsis Writing:
Students are to write synopsis based on the areas they covered in each academic session, and they are to submit a final synopsis to the Faculty Postgraduate Committee for assessment and scoring before the final copy is sent to the School of Postgraduate Studies for further necessary action (3 Units)
PCG 752: ADVANCED STRUCTURAL ELUCIDATION OF PLANT CONSTITUENTS
Methods for isolating and elucidating high molecular weight phyto-constituents. Structural elucidation of plant and invertebrate proteins of biological importance and novel compounds from marine organisms. (3 Units)

PCG 790: DOCTORAL DISSERTATION/THESIS
Thoroughly researched and adequately analyzed results of the data which must contribute significantly to the overall knowledge and insight of Pharmacognosy and Environmental Medicine. (12 Units)

NOTE: Minimum 30 credit Units

INSTRUCTION: The first two semesters of the Doctoral programme shall be devoted to course work and written examinations; the remaining sessions for Thesis, seminars and orals. Each Doctoral student shall complete and submit a progress Report (in the prescribed form), each semester of his/her programme, through the supervisor, through the Head of Department and through the Dean of the Faculty to the Dean, School of Postgraduate Studies.

INSTRUCTION: The first two semesters of the Doctoral programme shall be devoted to course work and written examinations; the remaining sessions for Thesis, seminars and orals. Each Doctoral student shall complete and submit a progress Report (in the prescribed form), each semester of his/her programme, through the supervisor, through the Head of Department and through the Dean of the Faculty to the Dean, School of Postgraduate Studies.